Oral problems would usually be ignored in the past, but now people understand just how important oral health is, not only in terms of aesthetics but also in terms of general health. This understanding along with advancements in technology has lead to marked change in dentistry.
Dental issues are very common now because of food habits and other factors; some of these problems are self-correcting anomalies while the others need to be addressed by a specialist doctor. Here are some of the more common dental problems that you should know about.
Pediatric problems – Pediatric dentistry ranges from the infant to the adolescent, and a wide range of dental problems are seen because of the dynamic nature of this age group. Pediatric dental problems include early childhood caries or the milk bottle caries. Crowding in this age group is a common dental problem. Teething problems can be very troublesome for the child and the caretaker. Also, as the toddlers learn to walk, the rate of fall injuries increases and hence the dental trauma. Development of oral habits is a major problem in children and has to be addressed before it causes malocclusion of teeth. Single tooth cross bite, high labial frenum, ankyloglossia, early loss of deciduous teeth are all the problems that are seen in this age group.
Dental caries– Dental caries is the most common disease and the treatment plan varies according to its extent, and ranges from a simple restoration to a root canal treatment or even extraction and prosthesis in case of non-restorable conditions.
Malocclusion – Misalignment of teeth can cause loss of confidence in a person and is further cause of problems of many categories. These teeth are more prone to trauma and for aesthetic reasons treatment is sought.
Gum or periodontal problems – A tooth is surrounded by periodontium, which if not healthy can lead to loosening of teeth and gum problems.
Dental stains – Can be both intrinsic and extrinsic because of reasons like fluorosis or tetracycline staining. Teeth whitening procedures or veneering is done.
Premalignant and malignant lesions – Including leukoplakia, lichen planus and many other malignancies.
Dental trauma – Can lead to periodontal injury as well as dental fractures. Sometimes there is luxation of teeth or exarticulation of the teeth.
Supernumerary or extra teeth – Most commonly seen as mesiodens between the central incisors but there can be many other types seen in different regions. They often lead to malocclusion.
Impacted teeth – With the modern soft diet, the size of the jaw is evolutionary becoming smaller and the third molars are often not accommodated in the dental arch and are impacted in the bone. It can lead to pericoronitis, which is the infection of the covering flap.